Clomiphene & Testosterone – Red Light & Cognitive Decline – Blood Pressure, Adrenaline & Taurine

Effects of clomiphene citrate on male obesity- associated hypogonadism: a randomized, double- blind, placebo-controlled study

Clomiphene is an estrogen receptor antagonist active in the hypothalamus. It is mostly used to treat female infertility and polycystic ovarian syndrome. This study looked at the effect of clomiphene on obesity and hypogonadism (often diagnosed simply by low testosterone levels).

78 obese men with low testosterone were enrolled in a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Men received either 50 mg clomiphene or placebo for 12 weeks. Treatment almost tripled total testosterone and free testosterone. Estradiol was also increased at the same rate. While testosterone was brought into a normal healthy range the increase in estrogen would likely need to be dealt with.

To evaluate clomiphene citrate (CC) treatment of adult men with male obesity-associated secondary hypogonadism (MOSH)….
There was an improvement in one sexual complaint (weaker erections; P < 0.001); increases (P < 0.001) in TT, free T, E2, LH, FSH, and SHBG; and improvements in lean mass (P < 0.001), fat-free mass (P = 0.004), and muscle mass (P < 0.001) in the CC group. CC reduced HDL (P < 0.001). No statistically significant differences were seen in endothelial function.
CC appeared to effectively improve the hormonal profile and body composition. CC may be an alternative treatment for MOSH in adult men.”


Illumination with 630-nm red light reduces oxidative stress and restores memory by photo-activating

We may be slowly moving toward a light treatment for problems associated with the aging brain. This study looked at the effect of low level light therapy therapy on a rodent model of age-related dementia. The study used a red LED around 630 nm. The study assessed the levels of hydrogen peroxide in the brain, elevated hydrogen peroxide is associated with dementia. Red light treatment lowered hydrogen peroxide in the brains of the animals. This had knock-on effects for acetylcholine. The light treatment showed therapeutic effects on memory deficits.

“Pharmacological treatments for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have not resulted in desirable clinical efficacy over 100 years. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive and the most stable compound of reactive oxygen species (ROS), contributes to oxidative stress in AD patients…
Results: We found that age-associated H2O2 directly inhibited formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH). FDH inactivity and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) disorder resulted in endogenous formaldehyde (FA) accumulation. Unexpectedly, excess FA, in turn, caused acetylcholine (Ach) deficiency by inhibiting choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, the 630-nm red light can penetrate the skull and abdomen with light penetration rates: ~49% and ~43%, respectively. Illumination with LED-RL markedly activated both catalase and FDH in the brains, cultured cells and purified protein solutions, all reduced brain H2O2 and FA levels and restored brain Ach contents. Consequently, LED-RL not only prevented early-stage memory decline but also rescued late-stage memory deficits in SAMP8 mice. Innovation: We developed a phototherapeutic device with 630-nm red light, and this LED-RL reduced brain H2O2 levels and reversed age-related memory disorders. Conclusions: The phototherapy of LED-RL has low photo toxicity and high rate of tissue penetration, and non-invasively reverses aging-associated cognitive decline. This finding opens a promising opportunity to translate LED-RL into clinical treatment for patients with dementia.”


Effects of increased adrenomedullary activity and taurine in young patients with borderline hypertension.

This study measured catecholamines in young people with borderline high blood pressure. Adrenaline/ epinephrine was increased in people with borderline high blood pressure. Supplementation with 6 g of taurine for one week lower blood pressure and adrenaline levels in the borderline hypertensive participants. Mean levels of adrenaline were decreased by about 20%, and systolic blood pressure by nine points.

“Recent studies showed that taurine, a sulphonic amino acid, could decrease blood pressure and increase sympathoadrenal tone in DoCA-salt-treated hypertensive rats. To determine whether taurine exerts its antihypertensive action in man in a similar fashion, we studied the effect of oral administration of taurine (6 g for 7 days) on blood pressure and plasma catecholamines in 19 young patients with borderline hypertension in a double-blind, placebo-controlled fashion. Systolic blood pressure in the 10 patients who were treated with taurine decreased by 9.0 +/- 2.9 mm Hg (mean +/- SE; p less than .05 by paired t test), compared with a 2.7 +/- 2.3 mm Hg decrease (NS) in the nine patients treated with placebo and diastolic blood pressure in the taurine-treated patients decreased by 4.1 +/- 1.7 mm Hg (p less than .05) compared with 1.2 +/- 3.0 mm Hg (NS) in the placebo-treated subjects. In the patients receiving taurine plasma epinephrine (E) decreased significantly, with a negligible decrease in plasma norepinephrine (NE). The effect of taurine on plasma catecholamines and the response of plasma E after the stimulation with glucagon was also studied in 12 borderline hypertensive and nine age-matched normotensive subjects. Basal plasma E was significantly higher in borderline hypertensive than in normal subjects, but basal plasma NE did not differ in the two groups.”