Chamomile Oil & Migraine – HPV Vaccine & Fertility – Noise Pollution & Blood Pressure

Evaluation of the effect of topical chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) oleogel as pain relief in migraine without aura: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study

Chamomile is the common name for a number of daisy like plants used across the globe for their medicinal effect. Chamomile tea is the most well known remedy derived from these plants. In some places the extracted chamomile oil is used as a medicinal formulation. This study tested the effect of a topical chamomile oil preparation and symptoms of migraine (without aura). The study provided some pretty impressive results which look they have real world significance. The oil was rubbed into the forehead and temple areas.

“Phytotherapy is a source of finding new remedies for migraine. Traditional chamomile oil (chamomile extraction in sesame oil) is a formulation in Persian medicine (PM) for pain relief in migraine. An oleogel preparation of reformulated traditional chamomile oil was prepared and then standardized based on chamazulene (as a marker in essential oil) and apigenin via gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, respectively. A crossover double-blind clinical trial was performed with 100 patients. Each patient took two tubes of drug and two tubes of placebo during the study. Visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaires were filled in by the patients and scores were given, ranging from 0 to 10 (based on the severity of pain) during 24 h. Other complications like nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and phonophobia were also monitored. There was 4.48 ± 0.01 μl/ml of chamazulene and 0.233 mg/g of apigenin in the preparation (by correcting the amount with extraction ratio). Thirty-eight patients in the drug-placebo and 34 patients in the placebo-drug groups (a total number of 72 patients as per protocol) completed the process in the randomized controlled trial (RCT). Adapted results from the questionnaires showed that pain, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and phonophobia significantly (p < 0.001) decreased by using chamomile oleogel on the patients after 30 min. Results supported the efficacy of chamomile oleogel as a pain relief in migraine without aura.”


Potential effect and mechanism of action of topical chamomile (Matricaria chammomila L.) oil on migraine headache: A medical hypothesis

Another study looked into some possible mechanisms behind the anti-migraine the effect of chamomile oil. Using the same common chamomile plant, this research found that chamomile inhibits nitric oxide, one of the main suspects in migraine pathogenesis. Chamomile also contains compounds which inhibit prostaglandin E2, another migraine suspect, though pharmaceutical prostaglandin E2 inhibitors have proved unsuccessful in some trials. These flavonoids in chamomile work the same way as aspirin, via COX-2 inhibition. (Aspirin is another migraine treatment with significant effect for some people). Chamomile oil preparation is discussed in this article [*]. Other types of chamomile oil are known to have effects on migraine, for example, pure Moroccan chamomile (Ormenis Multicaulis), which is pretty easily available on Amazon[*], though it does not contain sesame oil and sesamine. 

“Chamomile oil is prepared in Traditional Persian Medicine by boiling aqueous extract of chamomile in sesame oil….
It probably possesses pain relief effects for migraines because of the following properties: (1) chamazulene and apigenin, which inhibit iNOS expression in activated macrophages and can lead to the prohibition of NO release and synthesis; (2) chamomile flavonoids, which have a strong inhibitory effect on endogenous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in RAW 264.7 macrophages and can play the role of selective COX-2 inhibitor; (3) chamomile polyphenols, which possess anti-inflammatory effects due to the inhibition of pro-inflammatory biomarkers in THP1 macrophages and which can reduce inflammation in neurovascular units (NVU) at the site of migraine pain; (4) chamomile, which has neuroprotective effects because of reduced NO levels; (5) sesamine in sesame oil, which possesses an anti-inflammatory effect…
Because of the mentioned mechanisms of action, it can be hypothesized that chamomile oil is a novel medicine for the relief of migraine pain.”


A lowered probability of pregnancy in females in the USA aged 25–29 who received a human papillomavirus vaccine injection

This study reports on some of the negative associations with fertility in women having received the HPV vaccine. The study estimates that up to 2 million women would not have had children over the course of their lifetime if vaccination rates were 100% of the population.

“Birth rates per 1000 females aged 25–29 fell from 118 in 2007 to 105 in 2015. One factor may involve the vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV). Shortly after the vaccine was licensed, several reports of recipients experiencing primary ovarian failure emerged. This study analyzed information gathered in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which represented 8 million 25-to-29-year-old women residing in the United States between 2007 and 2014. Approximately 60% of women who did not receive the HPV vaccine had been pregnant at least once, whereas only 35% of women who were exposed to the vaccine had conceived. For married women, 75% who did not receive the shot were found to conceive, while only 50% who received the vaccine had ever been pregnant. Using logistic regression to analyze the data, the probability of having been pregnant was estimated for females who received an HPV vaccine compared with females who did not receive the shot. Results suggest that females who received the HPV shot were less likely to have ever been pregnant than women in the same age group who did not receive the shot. If 100% of females in this study had received the HPV vaccine, data suggest the number of women having ever conceived would have fallen by 2 million. Further study into the influence of HPV vaccine on fertility is thus warranted.”


Transportation Noise and Blood Pressure in a Population-Based Sample of Adults

Quite a lot of research has been conducted into the health effects of environmental noise. Environmental noise, particularly at night, is associated with many chronic health conditions. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and high blood pressure are all associated with traffic and aircraft noise. Some studies have controlled for air pollution and found that noise is an independent risk factor. This study compared survey that are looking at blood pressure and time exposure to noise. Night-time noise pollution increases blood pressure. At least some of the detrimental health effects of night-time noise pollution due to an increase in reactive oxygen species and stress hormones. Vitamin C can provide some protection [*]. I like liposomal brands that use Quali-C [*] because they have lower levels of contaminants and don’t cause gastrointestinal distress at higher doses.


We found evidence of an adverse effect of railway noise on blood pressure in this cohort population. Traffic noise was associated with higher blood pressure only in diabetics, possibly due to low exposure levels. The study results imply more severe health effects by transportation noise in vulnerable populations, such as adults with hypertension, diabetes, or CVD.”

*Traffic noise at night is independently associated with diabetes.*


Featured image[*]