Aspirin, Serotonin & Pulmonary Hypertension – CBD & Fertility – Carrageenan, Glucose & Insulin

Aspirin attenuates pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats by reducing plasma 5-hydroxytryptamine

Pulmonary hypertension is caused by increased blood pressure in the lungs. Symptoms include shortness of breath, fainting, fatigue, chest pain, swelling of the legs, and a fast heartbeat. It’s generally considered that the cause is unknown and that there is no cure. This study involved creating pulmonary hypertension in rats using a chemical. Rats were split into groups and given different doses of aspirin. A control group received no aspirin. Aspirin treatment lowered pulmonary arterial pressure in the rats. Many of the pathological physiological changes associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension were, to some degree, alleviated with aspirin treatment. Improvement with aspirin treatment was associated with lowering of plasma serotonin. Serotonin is implicated in a number of lung diseases, and aspirin has shown promise for conditions like COPD. [*] [*]

“Serotonin (5-HT) and other factors contribute to the development of pathologic lesions. Aspirin (ASA), a platelet aggregation inhibitor, inhibits 5-HT release from platelets. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of ASA in preventing or attenuating PAH. Sprague–Dawley rats injected with monocrotaline (MCT) developed severe PAH within 31 days. One hundred forty rats were randomized to receive either vehicle or ASA (0.5, 1, 2, or 4 mg/kg/day). The pre-ASA group was treated with ASA (1 mg/kg/day) for 30 days before the MCT injection. Thirty-one days after the injection (day 61 for the pre-ASA group), pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary arteriole thickness were measured. Plasma 5-HT was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Aspirin suppressed PAH and increased the survival rate compared with the control group (84 vs. 60%, P < 0.05). Aspirin treatment also reduced right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary arteriole proliferation in ASA-treated PAH model. In addition, plasma 5-HT (serotonin) was decreased in our ASA-treated PAH model. The degree of 5-HT reduction was associated with systolic PAP, right ventricular hypertrophy and wall thickness of pulmonary arterioles in rats. These results showed that ASA treatment effectively attenuated MCT-induced pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and occlusion of the pulmonary arteries. The effects of ASA was associated with a reduction of 5-HT.”

Check out some other benefits of aspirin:

Some Benefits Of Aspirin


Chronic exposure to cannabidiol induces reproductive toxicity in male Swiss mice.

This study looked at the effect of CBD/cannabidiol on the reproductive function of juvenile male mice. Dosing started at 3 weeks old and lasted for 34 days. The animals were examined 5 weeks after dosing had finished. CBD lowered testosterone and initiated deterioration in many markers sperm quality.

“This study aimed to assess the effects of chronic CBD exposure on the male reproductive system. CBD was orally administered to 21-day-old male Swiss mice at doses of 15 and 30 mg kg-1 daily (CBD 15 and 30 groups, respectively), with a control group receiving sunflower oil, for 34 consecutive days. After a 35 day recovery period, the following parameters were evaluated: weight of reproductive organs, testosterone concentration, spermatogenesis, histomorphometry, daily sperm production and its morphology. The CBD 30 group had a 76% decrease in total circulating testosterone, but it remained within the physiological normal range (240-1100 ng dl-1 ). CBD treatment induced a significant increase in the frequency of stages I-IV and V-VI of spermatogenesis, and a decrease in the frequency of stages VII-VIII and XII. A significant decrease in the number of Sertoli cells was observed only in the CBD 30 group. In both CBD groups the number of spermatozoa in the epididymis tail was reduced by 38%, sperm had head abnormalities, and cytoplasmic droplets were observed in the medial region of flagellum. These results indicated that chronic CBD exposure was associated with changes in the male reproductive system, suggesting its reproductive toxicity.”


Exposure to the common food additive carrageenan leads to glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and inhibition of insulin signalling in HepG2 cells and C57BL/6J mice

Carrageenans are common food additives used for thickening or gelling processed foods. They’re often added to desserts, ice cream and other processed dairy, salad dressings, and sauces. This study showed that carrageenan impairs glucose tolerance and insulin levels. Carrageenan may contribute to diabetes.

“The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the common food additive carrageenan (E407) on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and insulin signalling in a mouse model and human hepatic cells, since carrageenan is known to cause inflammation through interaction with toll-like receptor (TLR)4, which is associated with inflammation in diabetes….
Glucose tolerance was significantly impaired in carrageenan-treated 12-week-old mice compared with untreated controls at all time points (n = 12; p < 0.0001). Baseline insulin and insulin levels at 30 min after taking glucose during the GTT were significantly higher following carrageenan treatment. During the ITT, glucose levels declined by more than 80% in controls, but not in carrageenan-treated mice…
This is the first report of the impact of carrageenan on glucose tolerance and indicates that carrageenan impairs glucose tolerance, increases insulin resistance and inhibits insulin signalling in vivo in mouse liver and human HepG2 cells. These effects may result from carrageenan-induced inflammation. The results demonstrate extra-colonic manifestations of ingested carrageenan and suggest that carrageenan in the human diet may contribute to the development of diabetes.